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قديم 03-27-2010, 09:36 PM   #1

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قديم 03-27-2010, 09:47 PM   #2

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Robinson Crusoe

by
Daniel Defoe




SETTING
When the story begins, the setting is England. Some of the action thereafter takes place at sea in various ships. Once the pirates capture Crusoe, the action moves to Sallee, a port in Morocco. After Crusoe's escape from there, the setting moves to the Canary Islands, until a Portuguese ship arrives. For the next few years, the novel is set in Brazil. Then Crusoe embarks on his ill-fated voyage. After the shipwreck, Crusoe washes ashore on an uninhabited island, where Crusoe spends the next twenty-eight years of his life; most of the novel takes place on the island during these years. After Crusoe is rescued from the island, the setting moves to England, via Lisbon and the land route through Spain and France to Calais.


PLOT

Robinson Crusoe, born in York, is the third son in his family. His parents wish to make a lawyer out of young Crusoe, but Crusoe has other plans. His one great desire is to become a sailor and go to sea. The first foreshadows what lies ahead for the hero. Although his father refuses to give him permission to go to sea, Crusoe runs away to become a sailor. Although almost all of his initial forays into sea life are disastrous, Crusoe is not deterred. During one of his trips, the Moors capture his ship, and Crusoe is taken as a slave. He finally escapes in a boat with another young man. After some interesting adventures, he is rescued by a Portuguese ship. He next lands in Brazil, where his enterprising ways help him to succeed; he becomes a planter and prospers in a few years time. Still not satisfied with his success, he decides to become a slave trader in order to get cheap labor for his plantation. As he travels by boat to find slaves, a storm hits, and his ship is wrecked. All the sailors are drowned except for Crusoe, who is washed ashore on an uninhabited island.

The novel is basically about the life and adventures of Crusoe on the island, where he lives for the next twenty-eight years. Crusoe salvages as much as he can from the ship. He builds a home, strong fortifications, plows the land, cultivates corn and rice, and raises goats. His peaceful existence is interrupted when savages land on the island. Crusoe rescues Friday, one of the savages' prisoners, whom he educates and converts to Christianity. When the cannibals visit next, Friday and Crusoe rescue two of their prisoners, a Spaniard and a savage. The savage turns out to be Friday's father. An expedition is sent to the mainland in a canoe to bring back sixteen Spaniards who have been marooned there.

An English ship visits the coast, and a few of its crew come ashore in a boat. Crusoe realizes that the visitors are mutineers and that the captain and men loyal to him are being held as prisoners. With good planning, Crusoe and Friday subdue the mutineers and rescue the captain and his crew. When the ship sends another boat with men ashore, they are also tricked and captured by Crusoe's men. Now, all that stands in the way of Crusoe's deliverance is the remaining men on the ship. In a final assault, the ship is captured, and the rebel captain is killed. Soon Crusoe sails from the island in the capture ship and finally reaches England.
Back home, Crusoe finds that most of his family members have died. He also learns that his plantation in Brazil has thrived during his absence. As a result, he is enormously wealthy. The older, mature Crusoe is gracious in his new status and generous towards his old friends and the remaining members of his family. There are, however, some more adventures in life for Crusoe and his friends as they travel the land route through Europe to Calais. In the end, Crusoe settles down, gets married, and has three children. Many years later he visits his old island and finds it has been settled. He promises to send the inhabitants more essential things from Brazil. On this note the story ends.


CHARACTER LIST

Robinson Crusoe: the main character of the story, he is a rebellious youth with an inexplicable need to travel. Because of this need, he brings misfortune on himself and is left to fend for himself in a primitive land. The novel essentially chronicles his mental and spiritual development as a result of his isolation. He is a contradictory character; at the same time he is practical ingenuity and immature decisiveness.

Xury: a friend/servant of Crusoe's, he also escapes from the Moors. A simple youth who is dedicated to Crusoe, he is admirable for his willingness to stand by the narrator. However, he does not think for himself.

Friday: another friend/servant of Crusoe's, he spends a number of years on the island with the main character, who saves him from cannibalistic death. Friday is basically Crusoe's protege, a living example of religious justification of the slavery relationship between the two men. His eagerness to be redone in the European image is supposed to convey that this image is indeed the right one.

Crusoe's father: although he appears only briefly in the beginning, he embodies the theme of the merits of Protestant, middle-class living. It is his teachings from which Crusoe is running, with poor success.

Crusoe's mother: one of the few female figures, she fully supports her husband and will not let Crusoe go on a voyage.

Moorish patron: Crusoe's slave master, he allows for a role reversal of white men as slaves. He apparently is not too swift, however, in that he basically hands Crusoe an escape opportunity.

Portuguese sea captain: one of the kindest figures in the book, he is an honest man who embodies all the Christian ideals. Everyone is supposed to admire him for his extreme generosity to the narrator. He almost takes the place of Crusoe's father.

Spaniard: one of the prisoners saved by Crusoe, it is interesting to note that he is treated with much more respect in Crusoe's mind than any of the colored peoples with whom Crusoe is in contact.

Captured sea captain: he is an ideal soldier, the intersection between civilized European and savage white man. Crusoe's support of his fight reveals that the narrator no longer has purely religious motivations.

Widow: she is goodness personified, and keeps Crusoe's money safe for him. She is in some way a foil to his mother, who does not support him at all.

Savages: the cannibals from across the way, they represent the threat to Crusoe's religious and moral convictions, as well as his safety. He must conquer them before returning to his own world.

Negroes: they help Xury and Crusoe when they land on their island, and exist in stark contrast to the savages.

Traitorous crew members: they are an example of white men who do not heed God; they are white savages.

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قديم 03-27-2010, 09:51 PM   #3

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Themes, Motifs & Symbols



Themes

Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.

The Ambivalence of Mastery

Crusoe’s success in mastering his situation, overcoming his obstacles, and controlling his environment shows the condition of mastery in a positive light, at least at the beginning of the novel. Crusoe lands in an inhospitable environment and makes it his home. His taming and domestication of wild goats and parrots with Crusoe as their master illustrates his newfound control. Moreover, Crusoe’s mastery over nature makes him a master of his fate and of himself. Early in the novel, he frequently blames himself for disobeying his father’s advice or blames the destiny that drove him to sea. But in the later part of the novel, Crusoe stops viewing himself as a passive victim and strikes a new note of self-determination. In building a home for himself on the island, he finds that he is master of his life—he suffers a hard fate and still finds prosperity.
But this theme of mastery becomes more complex and less positive after Friday’s arrival, when the idea of mastery comes to apply more to unfair relationships between humans. In Chapter XXIII, Crusoe teaches Friday the word “[m]aster” even before teaching him “yes” and “no,” and indeed he lets him “know that was to be [Crusoe’s] name.” Crusoe never entertains the idea of considering Friday a friend or equal—for some reason, superiority comes instinctively to him. We further question Crusoe’s right to be called “[m]aster” when he later refers to himself as “king” over the natives and Europeans, who are his “subjects.” In short, while Crusoe seems praiseworthy in mastering his fate, the praiseworthiness of his mastery over his fellow humans is more doubtful. Defoe explores the link between the two in his depiction of the colonial mind.

The Necessity of Repentance

Crusoe’s experiences constitute not simply an adventure story in which thrilling things happen, but also a moral tale illustrating the right and wrong ways to live one’s life. This moral and religious dimension of the tale is indicated in the Preface, which states that Crusoe’s story is being published to instruct others in God’s wisdom, and one vital part of this wisdom is the importance of repenting one’s sins. While it is important to be grateful for God’s miracles, as Crusoe is when his grain sprouts, it is not enough simply to express gratitude or even to pray to God, as Crusoe does several times with few results. Crusoe needs repentance most, as he learns from the fiery angelic figure that comes to him during a feverish hallucination and says, “Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die.” Crusoe believes that his major sin is his rebellious behavior toward his father, which he refers to as his “original sin,” akin to Adam and Eve’s first disobedience of God. This biblical reference also suggests that Crusoe’s exile from civilization represents Adam and Eve’s expulsion from Eden.
For Crusoe, repentance consists of acknowledging his wretchedness and his absolute dependence on the Lord. This admission marks a turning point in Crusoe’s spiritual consciousness, and is almost a born-again experience for him. After repentance, he complains much less about his sad fate and views the island more positively. Later, when Crusoe is rescued and his fortune restored, he compares himself to Job, who also regained divine favor. Ironically, this view of the necessity of repentance ends up justifying sin: Crusoe may never have learned to repent if he had never sinfully disobeyed his father in the first place. Thus, as powerful as the theme of repentance is in the novel, it is nevertheless complex and ambiguous.

The Importance of Self-Awareness
Crusoe’s arrival on the island does not make him revert to a brute existence controlled by animal instincts, and, unlike animals, he remains conscious of himself at all times. Indeed, his island existence actually deepens his self-awareness as he withdraws from the external social world and turns inward. The idea that the individual must keep a careful reckoning of the state of his own soul is a key point in the Presbyterian doctrine that Defoe took seriously all his life. We see that in his normal day-to-day activities, Crusoe keeps accounts of himself enthusiastically and in various ways. For example, it is significant that Crusoe’s makeshift calendar does not simply mark the passing of days, but instead more egocentrically marks the days he has spent on the island: it is about him, a sort of self-conscious or autobiographical calendar with him at its center. Similarly, Crusoe obsessively keeps a journal to record his daily activities, even when they amount to nothing more than finding a few pieces of wood on the beach or waiting inside while it rains. Crusoe feels the importance of staying aware of his situation at all times. We can also sense Crusoe’s impulse toward self-awareness in the fact that he teaches his parrot to say the words, “Poor Robin Crusoe. . . . Where have you been?” This sort of self-examining thought is natural for anyone alone on a desert island, but it is given a strange intensity when we recall that Crusoe has spent months teaching the bird to say it back to him. Crusoe teaches nature itself to voice his own self-awareness.

Motifs

Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.

Counting and Measuring

Crusoe is a careful note-taker whenever numbers and quantities are involved. He does not simply tell us that his hedge encloses a large space, but informs us with a surveyor’s precision that the space is “150 yards in length, and 100 yards in breadth.” He tells us not simply that he spends a long time making his canoe in Chapter XVI, but that it takes precisely twenty days to fell the tree and fourteen to remove the branches. It is not just an immense tree, but is “five foot ten inches in diameter at the lower part . . . and four foot eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two foot.” Furthermore, time is measured with similar exactitude, as Crusoe’s journal shows. We may often wonder why Crusoe feels it useful to record that it did not rain on December 26, but for him the necessity of counting out each day is never questioned. All these examples of counting and measuring underscore Crusoe’s practical, businesslike character and his hands-on approach to life. But Defoe sometimes hints at the futility of Crusoe’s measuring—as when the carefully measured canoe cannot reach water or when his obsessively kept calendar is thrown off by a day of oversleeping. Defoe may be subtly poking fun at the urge to quantify, showing us that, in the end, everything Crusoe counts never really adds up to much and does not save him from isolation.

Eating

One of Crusoe’s first concerns after his shipwreck is his food supply. Even while he is still wet from the sea in Chapter V, he frets about not having “anything to eat or drink to comfort me.” He soon provides himself with food, and indeed each new edible item marks a new stage in his mastery of the island, so that his food supply becomes a symbol of his survival. His securing of goat meat staves off immediate starvation, and his discovery of grain is viewed as a miracle, like manna from heaven. His cultivation of raisins, almost a luxury food for Crusoe, marks a new comfortable period in his island existence. In a way, these images of eating convey Crusoe’s ability to integrate the island into his life, just as food is integrated into the body to let the organism grow and prosper. But no sooner does Crusoe master the art of eating than he begins to fear being eaten himself. The cannibals transform Crusoe from the consumer into a potential object to be consumed. Life for Crusoe always illustrates this eat or be eaten philosophy, since even back in Europe he is threatened by man-eating wolves. Eating is an image of existence itself, just as being eaten signifies death for Crusoe.

Ordeals at Sea

Crusoe’s encounters with water in the novel are often associated not simply with hardship, but with a kind of symbolic ordeal, or test of character. First, the storm off the coast of Yarmouth frightens Crusoe’s friend away from a life at sea, but does not deter Crusoe. Then, in his first trading voyage, he proves himself a capable merchant, and in his second one, he shows he is able to survive enslavement. His escape from his Moorish master and his successful encounter with the Africans both occur at sea. Most significantly, Crusoe survives his shipwreck after a lengthy immersion in water. But the sea remains a source of danger and fear even later, when the cannibals arrive in canoes. The Spanish shipwreck reminds Crusoe of the destructive power of water and of his own good fortune in surviving it. All the life-testing water imagery in the novel has subtle associations with the rite of baptism, by which Christians prove their faith and enter a new life saved by Christ.

Symbols

Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.

The Footprint

Crusoe’s shocking discovery of a single footprint on the sand in Chapter XVIII is one of the most famous moments in the novel, and it symbolizes our hero’s conflicted feelings about human companionship. Crusoe has earlier confessed how much he misses companionship, yet the evidence of a man on his island sends him into a panic. Immediately he interprets the footprint negatively, as the print of the devil or of an aggressor. He never for a moment entertains hope that it could belong to an angel or another European who could rescue or befriend him. This instinctively negative and fearful attitude toward others makes us consider the possibility that Crusoe may not want to return to human society after all, and that the isolation he is experiencing may actually be his ideal state.

The Cross

Concerned that he will “lose [his] reckoning of time” in Chapter VII, Crusoe marks the passing of days “with [his] knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great cross . . . set[s] it up on the shore where [he] first landed. . . .” The large size and capital letters show us how important this cross is to Crusoe as a timekeeping device and thus also as a way of relating himself to the larger social world where dates and calendars still matter. But the cross is also a symbol of his own new existence on the island, just as the Christian cross is a symbol of the Christian’s new life in Christ after baptism, an immersion in water like Crusoe’s shipwreck experience. Yet Crusoe’s large cross seems somewhat blasphemous in making no reference to Christ. Instead, it is a memorial to Crusoe himself, underscoring how completely he has become the center of his own life.

Crusoe’s Bower
On a scouting tour around the island, Crusoe discovers a delightful valley in which he decides to build a country retreat or “bower” in Chapter XII. This bower contrasts sharply with Crusoe’s first residence, since it is built not for the practical purpose of shelter or storage, but simply for pleasure: “because I was so enamoured of the place.” Crusoe is no longer focused solely on survival, which by this point in the novel is more or less secure. Now, for the first time since his arrival, he thinks in terms of “pleasantness.” Thus, the bower symbolizes a radical improvement in Crusoe’s attitude toward his time on the island. Island life is no longer necessarily a disaster to suffer through, but may be an opportunity for enjoyment—just as, for the Presbyterian, life may be enjoyed only after hard work has been finished and repentance achieved.
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قديم 03-27-2010, 09:53 PM   #4

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ملخص باللغة العربية للرواية


معلومات عن الرواية:
روبنسون كروزو رواية من تأليف Daniel Defoeدانيال ديفو,نشرت لأول مرة1719 تعتبر بعض الأحيان الرواية الأولى في الانكليزية. إن هذه الرواية هي سيرة ذاتية تخيلية .. (منبوذ إنكليزي يقضي 28 سنة في جزيرة بعيدة يصادف الهمج و الأسرى و الثوار قبل أن يُنقذ . هذه التقنية تعرف باسم الوثيقة الخاطئة و تعطي شكلاً واقعياً للقصة.

قصة روبنسون كروزو:
يغادر كروزو إنكلترا في رحلة بحرية في أيلول عام1651 مخالفاً رغبات والديه.تسطو القراصنة Salèعلى السفينة و يصبح كروزو عبداً للمغاربة the slave of a Moor .يتمكن كروزو الهرب في زورق و يصادق قائد سفينة برتغالية مِنْ الساحلِ الغربيِ لأفريقيا.كان طريق السفينة إلى البرازيل حيث هناك بمساعدة من الكابتن يصبح كروزو مالك لمزرعة.

ينضم كروزو إلى بعثة لجلب العبيد من أفريقيا , لكنة غرق في عاصفة تبعد أربعون ميلاً في البحر على مدخل نهر Orinoco (أورانوكو) في 30 أيلول عام 1659. يموت جميع رفاق كروزو و يتمكن هو من جلب الأسلحة و الأدوات و التجهيزات الأخرى من السفينة قبل أن تتحطم و تغرق . يقوم في بناء سور في مسكن و كهف , يصنع رزنامة بواسطة صنع علامات بواسطة قطعة خشب . يقوم بالصيد و يزرع الذرة و يتعلم صناعة الفخار و يربي الماعز .. يقرأ الإنجيل و يصبح متديناً فجأة و يشكر الله على مصيره فلا شيء قد فقد منه إلا المجتمع.

يكتشف كروزو cannibals آكلي لحوم بشر يقومون بزيارة الجزيرة ليقتلوا و يأكلوا السجناء , في بادئ الأمر يخطط لقتل the savages الهمج لفظاعتهم لكن يدرك أن ليس لديه الحق لعمل هذا cannibals لم يهاجموه و لم يرتكبوا جريمة بمعرفته . يحلم كروزو بأسر واحد أو أثنين من الخدم بتحرير بعض السجناء وفي الحقيقة، عندما استطاع سجين هُرُوب، يساعد كروزو، يَسمّي رفيقَه الجديد.َ"جمعةَ Friday" بعد يومِ الأسبوع الذيِ ظهر فيهَ، ويُعلّمُه إنجليزية ويُحوّلُه إلى المسيحيةِ.

تصل مجموعة جديدة من السكان الأصليين و يشاركون في وليمة مريعة و يستطيع جمعة و كروزو قتل معظمهم و الاحتفاظ باثنان منهم ( واحد هو والد جمعة و الثاني اسباني) يخبر الاسباني كروزو أن مجموعة من الأسبان الذين غرقوا موجودون على هذه الجزيرة. تبتكر خطة حيث يعود الاسباني و والد جمعة و البقية إلى الجزيرة حيث يبنون سفينة ليبحروا بها إلى ميناء اسبانيا.

قبل أَن يَعود الأسبان، تظهر سفينة إنجليزية؛ و يسيطر الثوار على السفينة و ينووا هِجْر قائدِهم السابقِ على الجزيرةِ.القائد وCrusoe يَستطيعانِ العودة أخذ السفينةَ. و يَتوجّهونَ إلى إنجلترا، و قد تَرْكوا ورائهم ثلاثة مِنْ الثوارِ لاعتماد على أنفسهم وإعلام الأسبان الذي حَدث.يَتركُ Crusoe الجزيرة في 19كانون الأول 1686. يُسافرُ إلى البرتغال لإيجاد صديقه القديمِ، القائد، الذي يُخبرُه بأنّ مزرعتَه البرازيليةَ اهتمت بشكل حسن وقد أَصْبَحَ غنياً. مِنْ البرتغال، يُسافرُ براً إلى إنجلترا، لتَفادي الحوادث في البحر، عن طريق إسبانيا وفرنسا؛أثناء شتاءِ في Pyrenees، هو ورفاقه يَجِبُ أَنْ يَطْردوا هجومَ بالذئابِ الشريرةِ. يُقرّر كروزو بَيْع مزرعته، كعودة إلى البرازيل تَستلزمُ التَحويل إلى الكاثوليكيةِ. لاحقاً في حياة ما بعد الزواج، سَيكونُ عِندَهُ ثلاثة أطفالِ ويُصبح أرملاً، يَعُودُ إلى جزيرتِه لآخر مَرّة.

يَنتهي الكتاب بتلميح حول تكملة التي تفصّلُ عودتَه إلى الجزيرةِ، التي كَانتْ قَدْ اكتشفت.
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قديم 03-27-2010, 10:29 PM   #5

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افتراضي



Macbeth by William Shakespeare


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William Shakespeare:
Beyond the records of his baptism in 1564 and his burial in 1616 there is little documentary evidence for William Shakespeare’s life, although there are many unverifiable stories and anecdotes. Even the traditional date for his birth, St George’s Day, 23 April, is uncertain. What evidence there is connects him firmly to Stratford-upon-Avon, where he was born, married, and died. Nothing is known of Shakespeare’s early life before his marriage, at the age of 18, in 1582. For five years, when he was in his 20s, there is nothing to tell us where Shakespeare was or what he was doing. He disappears from Stratford records after 1587, and reappears only in 1592 in London.

We do not know how and when he became an actor, or when he began writing plays either in collaboration with other dramatists or alone. His work as a dramatist is recorded through his published plays, but his career as an actor is virtually undocumented. Shakespeare is mentioned occasionally, in official records, in the records of the lives of his relations and friends, and in the writings of his fellow actors and dramatists, and that is all. His life and career have been more extensively researched than those of any other writer, but the evidence remains elusive.




Plot


T he play begins with the brief appearance of a trio of witches and then moves to a military camp, where the Scottish King Duncan hears the news that his generals, Macbeth and Banquo, have defeated two separate invading armies—one from Ireland, led by the rebel Macdonald, and one from Norway. Following their pitched battle with these enemy forces, Macbeth and Banquo encounter the witches as they cross a moor. The witches prophesy that Macbeth will be made thane (a rank of Scottish nobility) of Cawdor and eventually King of Scotland. They also prophesy that Macbeth’s companion, Banquo, will beget a line of Scottish kings, although Banquo will never be king himself. The witches vanish, and Macbeth and Banquo treat their prophecies skeptically until some of King Duncan’s men come to thank the two generals for their victories in battle and to tell Macbeth that he has indeed been named thane of Cawdor. The previous thane betrayed Scotland by fighting for the Norwegians and Duncan has condemned him to death. Macbeth is intrigued by the possibility that the remainder of the witches’ prophecy—that he will be crowned king—might be true, but he is uncertain what to expect. He visits with King Duncan, and they plan to dine together at Inverness, Macbeth’s castle, that night. Macbeth writes ahead to his wife, Lady Macbeth, telling her all that has happened.

Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husband’s uncertainty. She desires the kingship for him and wants him to murder Duncan in order to obtain it. When Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husband’s objections and persuades him to kill the king that very night. He and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncan’s two chamberlains drunk so they will black out; the next morning they will blame the murder on the chamberlains, who will be defenseless, as they will remember nothing. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and a number of supernatural portents, including a vision of a bloody dagger. When Duncan’s death is discovered the next morning, Macbeth kills the chamberlains—ostensibly out of rage at their crime—and easily assumes the kingship. Duncan’s sons Malcolm and Donalbain flee to England and Ireland, respectively, fearing that whoever killed Duncan desires their demise as well.

Fearful of the witches’ prophecy that Banquo’s heirs will seize the throne, Macbeth hires a group of murderers to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. They ambush Banquo on his way to a royal feast, but they fail to kill Fleance, who escapes into the night. Macbeth becomes furious: as long as Fleance is alive, he fears that his power remains insecure. At the feast that night, Banquo’s ghost visits Macbeth. When he sees the ghost, Macbeth raves fearfully, startling his guests, who include most of the great Scottish nobility. Lady Macbeth tries to neutralize the damage, but Macbeth’s kingship incites increasing resistance from his nobles and subjects. Frightened, Macbeth goes to visit the witches in their cavern. There, they show him a sequence of demons and spirits who present him with further prophecies: he must beware of Macduff, a Scottish nobleman who opposed Macbeth’s accession to the throne; he is incapable of being harmed by any man born of woman; and he will be safe until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane Castle. Macbeth is relieved and feels secure, because he knows that all men are born of women and that forests cannot move. When he learns that Macduff has fled to England to join Malcolm, Macbeth orders that Macduff’s castle be seized and, most cruelly, that Lady Macduff and her children be murdered.

When news of his family’s execution reaches Macduff in England, he is stricken with grief and vows revenge. Prince Malcolm, Duncan’s son, has succeeded in raising an army in England, and Macduff joins him as he rides to Scotland to challenge Macbeth’s forces. The invasion has the support of the Scottish nobles, who are appalled and frightened by Macbeth’s tyrannical and murderous behavior. Lady Macbeth, meanwhile, becomes plagued with fits of sleepwalking in which she bemoans what she believes to be bloodstains on her hands. Before Macbeth’s opponents arrive, Macbeth receives news that she has killed herself, causing him to sink into a deep and pessimistic despair. Nevertheless, he awaits the English and fortifies Dunsinane, to which he seems to have withdrawn in order to defend himself, certain that the witches’ prophecies guarantee his invincibility. He is struck numb with fear, however, when he learns that the English army is advancing on Dunsinane shielded with boughs cut from Birnam Wood. Birnam Wood is indeed coming to Dunsinane, fulfilling half of the witches’ prophecy.

In the battle, Macbeth hews violently, but the English forces gradually overwhelm his army and castle. On the battlefield, Macbeth encounters the vengeful Macduff, who declares that he was not “of woman born” but was instead “untimely ripped” from his mother’s womb (what we now call birth by cesarean section). Though he realizes that he is doomed, Macbeth continues to fight until Macduff kills and beheads him. Malcolm, now the King of Scotland, declares his benevolent intentions for the country and invites all to see him crowned at Scone.




Characters



Macbeth -
Macbeth is a Scottish general and the thane of Glamis who is led to wicked thoughts by the prophecies of the three witches, especially after their prophecy that he will be made thane of Cawdor comes true. Macbeth is a brave soldier and a powerful man, but he is not a virtuous one. He is easily tempted into murder to fulfill his ambitions to the throne, and once he commits his first crime and is crowned King of Scotland, he embarks on further atrocities with increasing ease. Ultimately, Macbeth proves himself better suited to the battlefield than to political intrigue, because he lacks the skills necessary to rule without being a tyrant. His response to every problem is violence and murder. Unlike Shakespeare’s great villains, such as Iago in Othello and Richard III in Richard III, Macbeth is never comfortable in his role as a criminal. He is unable to bear the psychological consequences of his atrocities.



Lady Macbeth -
Macbeth’s wife, a deeply ambitious woman who lusts for power and position. Early in the play she seems to be the stronger and more ruthless of the two, as she urges her husband to kill Duncan and seize the crown. After the bloodshed begins, however, Lady Macbeth falls victim to guilt and madness to an even greater degree than her husband. Her conscience affects her to such an extent that she eventually commits suicide. Interestingly, she and Macbeth are presented as being deeply in love, and many of Lady Macbeth’s speeches imply that her influence over her husband is primarily sexual. Their joint alienation from the world, occasioned by their partnership in crime, seems to strengthen the attachment that they feel to each another.


The Three Witches -
Three “black and midnight hags” who plot mischief against Macbeth using charms, spells, and prophecies. Their predictions prompt him to murder Duncan, to order the deaths of Banquo and his son, and to blindly believe in his own immortality. The play leaves the witches’ true identity unclear—aside from the fact that they are servants of Hecate, we know little about their place in the cosmos. In some ways they resemble the mythological Fates, who impersonally weave the threads of human destiny. They clearly take a perverse delight in using their knowledge of the future to toy with and destroy human beings.


Banquo -
The brave, noble general whose children, according to the witches’ prophecy, will inherit the Scottish throne. Like Macbeth, Banquo thinks ambitious thoughts, but he does not translate those thoughts into action. In a sense, Banquo’s character stands as a rebuke to Macbeth, since he represents the path Macbeth chose not to take: a path in which ambition need not lead to betrayal and murder. Appropriately, then, it is Banquo’s ghost—and not Duncan’s—that haunts Macbeth. In addition to embodying Macbeth’s guilt for killing Banquo, the ghost also reminds Macbeth that he did not emulate Banquo’s reaction to the witches’ prophecy.


King Duncan -
The good King of Scotland whom Macbeth, in his ambition for the crown, murders. Duncan is the model of a virtuous, benevolent, and farsighted ruler. His death symbolizes the destruction of an order in Scotland that can be restored only when Duncan’s line, in the person of Malcolm, once more occupies the throne.


Macduff -
A Scottish nobleman hostile to Macbeth’s kingship from the start. He eventually becomes a leader of the crusade to unseat Macbeth. The crusade’s mission is to place the rightful king, Malcolm, on the throne, but Macduff also desires vengeance for Macbeth’s murder of Macduff’s wife and young son.


Malcolm -
The son of Duncan, whose restoration to the throne signals Scotland’s return to order following Macbeth’s reign of terror. Malcolm becomes a serious challenge to Macbeth with Macduff’s aid (and the support of England). Prior to this, he appears weak and uncertain of his own power, as when he and Donalbain flee Scotland after their father’s murder.


Lady Macduff -

Macduff’s wife. The scene in her castle provides our only glimpse of a domestic realm other than that of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. She and her home serve as contrasts to Lady Macbeth and the hellish world of Inverness
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قديم 03-27-2010, 10:37 PM   #6

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Themes





The Corrupting Power of Unchecked Ambition
The main theme of Macbeth—the destruction wrought when ambition goes unchecked by moral constraints—finds its most powerful expression in the play’s two main characters. Macbeth is a courageous Scottish general who is not naturally inclined to commit evil deeds, yet he deeply desires power and advancement. He kills Duncan against his better judgment and afterward stews in guilt and paranoia. Toward the end of the play he descends into a kind of frantic, boastful madness. Lady Macbeth, on the other hand, pursues her goals with greater determination, yet she is less capable of withstanding the repercussions of her immoral acts. One of Shakespeare’s most forcefully drawn female characters, she spurs her husband mercilessly to kill Duncan and urges him to be strong in the murder’s aftermath, but she is eventually driven to distraction by the effect of Macbeth’s repeated bloodshed on her conscience. In each case, ambition—helped, of course, by the malign prophecies of the witches—is what drives the couple to ever more terrible atrocities. The problem, the play suggests, is that once one decides to use violence to further one’s quest for power, it is difficult to stop. There are always potential threats to the throne—Banquo, Fleance, Macduff—and it is always tempting to use violent means to dispose of them.


The Relationship Between Cruelty and Masculinity
Characters in Macbeth frequently dwell on issues of gender. Lady Macbeth manipulates her husband by questioning his manhood, wishes that she herself could be “unsexed,” and does not contradict Macbeth when he says that a woman like her should give birth only to boys. In the same manner that Lady Macbeth goads her husband on to murder, Macbeth provokes the murderers he hires to kill Banquo by questioning their manhood. Such acts show that both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth equate masculinity with naked aggression, and whenever they converse about manhood, violence soon follows. Their understanding of manhood allows the political order depicted in the play to descend into chaos.

At the same time, however, the audience cannot help noticing that women are also sources of violence and evil. The witches’ prophecies spark Macbeth’s ambitions and then encourage his violent behavior; Lady Macbeth provides the brains and the will behind her husband’s plotting; and the only divine being to appear is Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft. Arguably, Macbeth traces the root of chaos and evil to women, which has led some critics to argue that this is Shakespeare’s most misogynistic play. While the male characters are just as violent and prone to evil as the women, the aggression of the female characters is more striking because it goes against prevailing expectations of how women ought to behave. Lady Macbeth’s behavior certainly shows that women can be as ambitious and cruel as men. Whether because of the constraints of her society or because she is not fearless enough to kill, Lady Macbeth relies on deception and manipulation rather than violence to achieve her ends.

Ultimately, the play does put forth a revised and less destructive definition of manhood. In the scene where Macduff learns of the murders of his wife and child, Malcolm consoles him by encouraging him to take the news in “manly” fashion, by seeking revenge upon Macbeth. Macduff shows the young heir apparent that he has a mistaken understanding of masculinity. To Malcolm’s suggestion, “Dispute it like a man,” Macduff replies, “I shall do so. But I must also feel it as a man” (4.3.221–223). At the end of the play, Siward receives news of his son’s death rather complacently. Malcolm responds: “He’s worth more sorrow [than you have expressed] / And that I’ll spend for him” (5.11.16–17). Malcolm’s comment shows that he has learned the lesson Macduff gave him on the sentient nature of true masculinity. It also suggests that, with Malcolm’s coronation, order will be restored to the Kingdom of Scotland.



The Difference Between Kingship and Tyranny
In the play, Duncan is always referred to as a “king,” while Macbeth soon becomes known as the “tyrant.” The difference between the two types of rulers seems to be expressed in a conversation that occurs in Act 4, scene 3, when Macduff meets Malcolm in England. In order to test Macduff’s loyalty to Scotland, Malcolm pretends that he would make an even worse king than Macbeth. He tells Macduff of his reproachable qualities—among them a thirst for personal power and a violent temperament, both of which seem to characterize Macbeth perfectly. On the other hand, Malcolm says, “The king-becoming graces / [are] justice, verity, temp’rance, stableness, / Bounty, perseverance, mercy, [and] lowliness” (4.3.92–93). The model king, then, offers the kingdom an embodiment of order and justice, but also comfort and affection. Under him, subjects are rewarded according to their merits, as when Duncan makes Macbeth thane of Cawdor after Macbeth’s victory over the invaders. Most important, the king must be loyal to Scotland above his own interests. Macbeth, by contrast, brings only chaos to Scotland—symbolized in the bad weather and bizarre supernatural events—and offers no real justice, only a habit of capriciously murdering those he sees as a threat. As the embodiment of tyranny, he must be overcome by Malcolm so that Scotland can have a true king once more.



Motifs



Hallucinations
Visions and hallucinations recur throughout the play and serve as reminders of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s joint culpability for the growing body count. When he is about to kill Duncan, Macbeth sees a dagger floating in the air. Covered with blood and pointed toward the king’s chamber, the dagger represents the bloody course on which Macbeth is about to embark. Later, he sees Banquo’s ghost sitting in a chair at a feast, pricking his conscience by mutely reminding him that he murdered his former friend. The seemingly hardheaded Lady Macbeth also eventually gives way to visions, as she sleepwalks and believes that her hands are stained with blood that cannot be washed away by any amount of water. In each case, it is ambiguous whether the vision is real or purely hallucinatory; but, in both cases, the Macbeths read them uniformly as supernatural signs of their guilt.


Violence
Macbeth is a famously violent play. Interestingly, most of the killings take place offstage, but throughout the play the characters provide the audience with gory descriptions of the carnage, from the opening scene where the captain describes Macbeth and Banquo wading in blood on the battlefield, to the endless references to the bloodstained hands of Macbeth and his wife. The action is bookended by a pair of bloody battles: in the first, Macbeth defeats the invaders; in the second, he is slain and beheaded by Macduff. In between is a series of murders: Duncan, Duncan’s chamberlains, Banquo, Lady Macduff, and Macduff’s son all come to bloody ends. By the end of the action, blood seems to be everywhere.


Prophecy

Prophecy sets Macbeth’s plot in motion—namely, the witches’ prophecy that Macbeth will become first thane of Cawdor and then king. The weird sisters make a number of other prophecies: they tell us that Banquo’s heirs will be kings, that Macbeth should beware Macduff, that Macbeth is safe till Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane, and that no man born of woman can harm Macbeth. Save for the prophecy about Banquo’s heirs, all of these predictions are fulfilled within the course of the play. Still, it is left deliberately ambiguous whether some of them are self-fulfilling—for example, whether Macbeth wills himself to be king or is fated to be king. Additionally, as the Birnam Wood and “born of woman” prophecies make clear, the prophecies must be interpreted as riddles, since they do not always mean what they seem to mean.



Symbols




Blood
Blood is everywhere in Macbeth, beginning with the opening battle between the Scots and the Norwegian invaders, which is described in harrowing terms by the wounded captain in Act 1, scene 2. Once Macbeth and Lady Macbeth embark upon their murderous journey, blood comes to symbolize their guilt, and they begin to feel that their crimes have stained them in a way that cannot be washed clean. “Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood / Clean from my hand?” Macbeth cries after he has killed Duncan, even as his wife scolds him and says that a little water will do the job (2.2.58–59). Later, though, she comes to share his horrified sense of being stained: “Out, damned spot; out, I say . . . who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him?” she asks as she wanders through the halls of their castle near the close of the play (5.1.30–34). Blood symbolizes the guilt that sits like a permanent stain on the consciences of both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, one that hounds them to their graves.


The Weather
As in other Shakespearean tragedies, Macbeth’s grotesque murder spree is accompanied by a number of unnatural occurrences in the natural realm. From the thunder and lightning that accompany the witches’ appearances to the terrible storms that rage on the night of Duncan’s murder, these violations of the natural order reflect corruption in the moral and political orders.
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قديم 03-27-2010, 10:41 PM   #7

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الترجمهـ :




مسرحية ماكبث


) عــــرض النــــص
خلال حكم الملك العظيم دنكان ، ملك اسكتلندا ، كان يعيش لورد عظيم اسمه ماكبث. وكان من رجال الملك المقربين ، لما يتمتع به من شرف وشجاعة فى القتال .
وعندما كان القائد ماكبث وزميله القائد بانكو ، عائدين منتصرين من موقعة كبيرة ، استوقفتهما ثلاثة اشباح ، اقرب الى شكل النساء ، فيما عدا ان لهم ذقونا ، كما أن جلودهم الشاحبة وملابسهم الغريبة حعلتهم لا يبدون مثل المخلوقات الأرضية .. وبادرهم ماكبث بالحديث ، لكن كل واحدة منهن وضعت اصابعها على فمها طالبة السكوت ؛ ونادته الأولى بأسمه (ماكبث) وبلقبه الرسمى لورد جلاميس . واندهش القائد كثيرا عندما وجد نفسه معروفا من قبل تلك المخلوقات ؛ لكن دهشته ازدادت عندما نادته الثانية بلقب لورد كاودور ، هذا اللقب الذى لم يكن يستحقه .. أما الثالثة فقد نادته قائلة : "مرحبا ؛ بالملك القادم ! " ولقد ادهشته هذه النبوءة لأنه كان يعرف ، أنه طالما أن أبناء الملك أحياء ، فلا يستطيع أن يأمل فى الوصول الى العرش ، ثم التفتن الى القائد بانكو وتعرفن عليه ، وقلن له بكلمات غامضة : " ستكون أقل شأنا من ماكبث ، ولن تكون سعيدا فقط ، بل موفور السعادة ! وتنبأن له ، بأنه لن يتولى العرش أبدا ، الا أن أبناءه من بعده سيكونون ملوكا لاسكتلندا .. ثم استدرن فى الهواء واختفين ، وهنا تأكد القائدان أنهن ساحرات ..
وبينما هما واقفين يفكران فى هذه الأمور الغريبة وصل رسول خاص من قبل الملك . ليخلع على ماكبث لقب واسم دوقية كاودور .
وكان لهذا الحدث الغريب أثره على نفس ماكبث ، لأنه تطابق مع ما قالته الساحرات ، الأمر الذى ملأه بالحيرة فوقف مذهولا ، غير قادر حتى على الرد على الرسول .. ومنذ تلك اللحظة ، بدأت الآمال الضخمة تداعب ذهنه ، فى امكانية تحقيق النبوءة الثالثة ، وبالتالى فقد يصبح ذات يوم ملكا لاسكتلندا .
فالتفت الى بانكو ، وقال :
"ألا تتمنى أن يكون أولادك ملوكا ، خاصة وأن ما وعدتنى به الساحرات قد تحقق؟
فأجاب بانكو :
" ان هذه الأمل قد يدفعك للتطلع الى العرش ، لكن رسل الظلام قد يصدقون معنا فى أشياء صغيرة ، حتى تقودنا الى ارتكاب أفعال شريرة " .
لكن كلمات الساحرات ، كانت قد استقرت فى أعماق تفكير ماكبث ، حتى أنه أعرض عن تحذيرات بانكو الطيب . ومنذ ذلك الوقت وجه كل تفكيره فى كيفية الفوز بعرش اسكتلندا ..


(2) الخـــــط الدرامــــىعندما قص ماكبث لزوجته تلك النبوءة الغريبة للساحرات ، وما تلى ذلك من أحداث . وكانت الليدى ماكبث سيدة شريرة تطمح فى مكانة عالية لنفسها ولزوجها ، وتتمنى لو أنها هى وزوجها يصلان الى هذه المرتبة العظيمة بأية وسيلة كانت . وأخذت تناقش ماكبث فى ذلك الأمر ، ولم تتورع فى أن تقول له ان قتل الملك أمر ضرورى جدا لتحقيق النبوءة .
وحدث فى تلك الفترة أن قام الملك بزيارة ماكبث فى قلعته ، بصحبة ولديه مالكولم ، ودونالبين ، ومجموعة من اللوردات والمستشارين لتهنئة ماكبث بانتصاره فى الحرب .
كانت قلعة ماكبث مبنية فى مكان لطيف ، والهواء هناك منعش وصحى ، حيث أقامت طيور السنونو أعشاشها على الجدران ، ذلك أن هذه الطيور ، لا تقيم أعشاشها الا فى الأماكن المعروفة بجوها الطيب وعندما دخل الملك ، سعد جدا بالمكان ، وسعد كذلك بنفس القدر لذلك الاهتمام والاحترام والتبجيل الذى لاقته به السيدة المضيفة ليدى ماكبث ، التى كانت تجيد فن تغطية أهدافها الشريرة ، وراء ابتسامتها ؛ وتبدو كالزهرة البرية ، التى تخفى حية تحتها !
وازاء تعب الملك من الرحلة ، فقد ذهب مبكرا الى الفراش ، وبصحبته اثنان من الخدم (كما جرت العادة) ينامان بالقرب منه .. كانت سعادته بهذا الاستقبال غير عادية ، حتى أنه قام بتوزيع بعض المنح والهدايا على الضباط الكبار ، قبل أن يذهب الى النوم ، ومن ضمن هذه الهدايا ، أرسل ماسة غالية الى الليدى ماكبث ، تحية لها لما أبدته من كرم الضيافة والترحيب
وفى منتصف الليل كانت الليدى ماكبث مستيقظة تخطط لقتل
الملك . وهى لم تكن تفعل ذلك خروجا عن المألوف بطبيعة كونها امرأة ، لكنها كانت متخوفة من طبيعة زوجها ؛ من أن تكون مشبعة بلين العاطفة الانسانية ، للقيام بعملية القتل . ورغم أنها كانت تعرف رغباته الطموحة ؛ لكنه كان يخشى ارتكاب الأخطاء الفاحشة ، ذلك أنه لم يعد لارتكاب مثل هذا الجرم العظيم .
صحيح أنها نجحت فى اقناعه بالجريمة ، لكنها كانت تشك فى ارادته بالتنفيذ ، ولتلك الرقة التى كان يتميز بها قلبه ( اذ كان أكثر منها كرما ولطفا ) والتى قد تعوق تنفيذ المهمة . لذلك قامت هى نفسها بالذهاب الى حجرة نوم الملك وبيدها سكين حادة ، واقتربت من سرير الملك ، وقد عملت حسابها أن يكون الخادمان فى حالة سكر وغافلين عن الحراسة .
كان دنكان يرقد نائما يشخر من أثر تعب الرحلة ؛ وعندما نظرت اليه عن قرب ، وجدت فى وجهه وهو نائم شيئا ما ، جعلها تفكر فى والدها . ولم يطاوعها قلبها أن تهم بقتله !
وعادت لتتحدث مع زوجها ، الذى بدا متراجعا حيال ذلك الأمر . فهناك عدة اعتبارات تقف الآن ضد هذه الفعلة . ففى المقام الأول هو ليس شخصا عاديا ، بل من المقربين الى الملك ؛ كما أن الملك يحل فى ضيافته اليوم ، ومن واجب المضيف أن يمنع أية محاولة لقتل ضيفه لا أن يحمل هو سكين الجريمة ، بل ورأى أن الملك دنكان ملك رحيم ، واضح فى خصومته مع أعدائه ، ومحب لأعوانه من النبلاء ، وبالنسبة له بصفة خاصة .. ان مثل هؤلاء الملوك هم رسل العناية الالهية ، وسوف يلقى كل من يؤذيهم العقاب مضاعفا من أعوانهم . هذا بالاضافة الى أن الملك كان يخصه دون الرجال جميعا لرجاحة فكره ، فكيف يلوث كل هذا التكريم ، بدماء جريمة بشعة كهذه ؟ ! .
واكتشفت الليدى ماكبث أن زوجها بدأ يتحول تجاه الخير ، وقرر ألا يتمادى فى ذلك الأمر أكثر من ذلك .. لكنها كانت أمرأة من ذلك النوع الذى لا يتراجع عن هذفه الشرير بسهولة .. فبدأت تصب فى أذنيه كلمات تشحن رأسه بوجهة نظرها .. وأخذت تقدم له المبرر تلو المبرر لكى لا يتراجع عن تحقيق ما وعدته به الساحرات ؛ وكم سيكون التنفيذ سهلا ؛ وكيف أن فعله مثل هذه ذات ليلة قصيرة ، ستسعد باقى لياليهم وأيامهم القادمة ، وتوصلهم الى العرش والسلطة الملكية ! .وأخذت تسخر من تراجعه عن قصده ووصفته بأنه متردد وجبان .
وهكذا ، تناول الخنجر فى يده ، وتسلل بخفة الى الحجرة التى يرقد فيها دنكان ! ولكن بينما كان فى طريقه ، تخيل أنه رأى خنجرا آخر فى الهواء مقبضه يتجه ناحيته ، ونصله يقطر دما . وعندما حاول أن يمسكه ، لم يكن هناك شئ غير الهواء ، وأن الأمر ليس الا مجرد خيالات ، نتيجة لما يدور فى رأسه المحموم والمهمة التى ينبغى عليه أن ينفذها ..
ونفض عنه خوفه ، ودخل غرفة الملك ، وقتله بضربة واحدة من خنجره .. وبمجرد اقتراف الجريمة ، ابتسم أحد الخدم المرافقين للملك ، وهو نائم ، بينما صاح الآخر : " جريمة " واستيقظ الاثنان . وشرعا فى تلاوة صلاة قصيرة ، وقال أحدهما ، " فليغفر لنا الله ! " فأجاب الآخر ؛ " آمين ! " ثم عاودا النوم مرة ثانية . وحاول ماكبث الذى كان يقف مصغيا اليهما ، أن يقول : " آمين " . عندما قال أحدهما ، " فليغفر لنا الله ! " ، الا أن الكلمة وقفت فى حلقه ، ولم يستطع أن يقولها ، رغم أنه كان فى حاجة ملحة للمغفرة .. !
وتخيل أنه سمع صوتا يصيح " : لن يذوق ماكبث طعم النوم بعد الآن : لأنه قتل نائما ، نائما بريئا ، وهذه سنة الحياة " . وظل الصوت يردد صيحاته فى أرجاء البيت : " لن يذوق طعم النوم بعد الآن ، فلقد قتل لورد جلاميس رجلا نائما ، لذا فلن يذوق لورد كاودور طعم النوم ؛ لن ينام ماكبث بعد الآن ! ..
ومع طلوع الصبح ، اكتشفت الجريمة التى لا يمكن اخفاؤها . وأظهر ماكبث وزوجته حزنا كبيرا ، وكانت الأدلة ضد الخدم من القوة بما فيه الكفاية لادانتهما . رغم أن كل الاتهامات الخفية كانت تشير الى أن ماكبث هو الذى فعلها ، لأن لديه من الدوافع القوية أكثر مما لدى الخدم المسكين للقيام بذلك ؛ وهرب ابنا دنكان مالكولم ، الأكبر ، الى انجلترا ، ودونالبين الأصغر ، الى ايرلندا ..
وبهروب ابنى الملك ، اللذين كانا من المفروض أن يخلفاه فى الملك ، أصبح العرش خاليا ، وتوج ماكبث ملكا ، وهكذا تحققت نبوءة الساحرات تماما .


(3) اللغــــــة
اللغة عند شكسبير قوية فصيحة تعايش الحدث تعتمد على عقدة تساير الأحداث واللغة تجعل المشاهد فى صميم العمل المسرحى فيتأثر به ويتلاحم معه حتى يصل الى نهايته

(4) الحــــــــــوار

الحوار متقن وايقاعه يبطئ فى فصل ويسرع فى فصل أخر فهو يتلاحم مع نسيج العمل ، ولم يترك الكاتب مساحات فراغ ، بل نلاحظ براعة النسج وتواصل الأحداث .
والحوار عند شكسبير قصصى ذو نكهة شاعرية فهو يميل الى البحث فيما وراء الطبيعة كالحوار الذى دار بين ماكبث والساحرات الثلاثة وهن يطلعنه على نبوءة المستقبل هو بانكو قائد جيش دنكان وهذا حوار بين مالكولم وسيورد الذى قتله ماكبث فى المبارزة
ملكولم : لا سمح الله بأن نسمع سوء عن أصدقائنا المتغيبين الان
سيورد : لابد أننا فقدنا بعضهم ومهما يكونوا فليسوا بالثمن الغالى لهذا الانتصار العظيم
مالكولم : ترى أين ماكدوف وأين نجلك النبيل
روس : نجلك ياسيدى قد أوفى الدين المفروض على كل بطل محارب ثم مات ميتة رجل وهنا يعود مكدوف حاملا رأس ماكبث على سنان رمحه
مكدوف : سلام أيها الملك فلقد أصبحت انظر الى رأس هذا الغاصب الغشوم ، نجت اسكتلندا فهى حرة وهؤلاء سادة رجالها يحبونك من صميم قلوبهم قدمون تحية للتاج وينادون سلاما ياملك اسكتلندا
الجميع : سلام ياملك اسكتلندا
(5) أشخاص المسرحية-

دنكان ، ملك اسكتلندا .
- ماكبث ، لورد جلاميس ، وقائد جيش - دنكان .
- مالكولم أبن دنكان .
- دونالبين ابن دنكان .
- فليانس ، ابن بانكو .
- ماكدوف ، لورد فايف .
- السيدة ماكبث .
- السيدة ماكدوف .
- الساحرات الثلاثة .
- اشباح .

(6) المضــمـــــون

يجب ان نطرح سؤلا :
ما الحكمة التى أرادها شكسبير من نبوءة الساحرات الثلاث اللاتى قابلن ماكبث أنه يلقى الضوء على نوع من السلوك الدينى العقائدى الذى نلمسه فى الاديان السماوية وهو الاعتقاد فى العالم السفلى وفى السحر ويدل على ذلك المثل الذى يقول كذب المنجمون ولو صدقوا فنجد فى المسرحية ان ماكبث حصد أشواك تصديقه لنبوءة الساحرات الثلاث بأنه سوف يصبح ملكا متوجا ويعتلى عرش المملكة بأسرها وهذا مما دفعه أن يكون مجرما قاتلا يمسك بالخنجر وينقض على المك دنكان الذى قربه منه وكان يكن له قدرا من الاحترام والتعظيم ولاسيما بعد انتصاره حيث قام الملك دنكان بزيارته فى قلعته المبنية فى مكان لطيف وذات هواء منعش زاره هو وولديه ومجموعة من اللوردات والمستشارين لتهنئة ماكبث بأنتصاره فى الحرب ورغم أن الملك قام بتوزيع الهدايا للضباط الكبار وأرسل ماسة غالية لليدى ماكبث تحية لها لما أبدته من كرم الضيافة والترحيب تلك هى السيدة التى خططت لزوجها كيفية التخلص من الملك أثناء نومه وألصاق التهمة الى الحارسين النائمين بجواره ، وبعد أن تخلصت من الملك أوعزت اليه بعد ذلك الى التخلص من اولاد بانكوك لكى تتحقق النبوءة الثانية
نجد أن احداث المسرحية تسير فى خط درامى الى نهاية مأساوية .
حيث أن أفكار ماكبث الدموية وتصديقه للساحرات من حين لأخر بزيارته للكهف النائى الذى يعيش فيه الساحرات الثلاث وهو يسير طوع امرهم بلا ارادة أو تفكير منطقى سليم
فيظهرون له فى أشكال مرعبة ويدسون له أفكار وحشية همجية ادت به فى النهاية الى انه فى نظر المجتمع اصبح سفاحا سفاكا للدماء وعاش مكروها معزولا وكذلك زوجته التى تشبه الحية الرقطاء فى أفعالها المخيفة برغم أن ماكبث أصبح ملكا على اسكتلندا والليدى ماكبث ملكة هى الأخرى الأ انه اصبح بعد ذلك غير عابئ بالحياة راغبا فى الموت بعدما أنتحرت شريكة حياته لعدم قدرتها على تحمل مرارة وعار أفعالها الشريرة بالأضافة الى أن الوعود الفارغة التى وعدته بها الساحرات قد ملأته بأمل كاذب حيث أن أبناء الملك الذى قتله ماكبث أعلنوا الحرب عليه فى كل مكان ولاقى منهم شر هزيمة هم وأعوانهم بينما أختفت الساحرات فى النهاية بعدما سخرنا منه نتيجة فشله فى النهاية

(7) البنـــاء الدرامـــــى

نرى عبقرية شكسبير واضحة جلية فى أحكام البناء وتصارع الأحداث وشحذ المشاعر والعواطف :
وهى تسير فى تسلسل منطقى بداية من مقابلة القائد ماكبث للساحرات الثلاث ، وتصديقه لنبوءاتهم السحرية الكاذبة ، ونتيجة لذلك اقترف الاثام والخطايا فلاقى نهاية مأساويه هو وزوجته الشريرة التى غيرت مسار حياته من الخير الى الشر .
اذن فالمسرحية ذات هدف واضح وهو عدم تصديق نبؤة الساحرات والعالم السفلى ومن الاجدى الاتجاه الى العلم الدينى المفيد الذى تنادى به السماء وكم حذرتنا الأديان السماوية جميعا من تصديق السحرة فهم أخوان للشياطين اللذين يضللون الإنسان ويدفعون به الى الجنون فى النهاية والعلوم الدنيوية تنادى بالمنطق العقلى والتفكير العميق السليم اذا وقع الإنسان فى خطأ تجاه المجتمع والبشرية فعليه أن يحاسب نفسه قبل أن يفعل شيئا يضر بمن حوله ولا ينقاد الى الاوهام والخزعبلات بالاعتقاد فى السحر أنه سيحقق المجد والشهرة كما هو الحال عند ماكبث .
انما كل شئ مقدر عند الله حاكم هذا الكون الفسيح الذى يوزع الارزاق وبيده القضاء والقدر .
والمسرحية مؤثرة علميا وتربويا ونفسيا فهى تعلمنا الرضا بما قسم لنا الله وعدم الطمع والسيطرة على مال الغير بطرق وحشية غير انسانية (ومن حفر لأخيه حفرة وقع فيها) وتعلمنا أيضا أن نرد المعروف بأحسن منه لا أن نعتدى على الاخرين فى سبيل تحقيق المصلحة الشخصية .
وهذا من سمات المسرح عند كاتب مشهور مثل وليم شكسبير . . . . !!



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قديم 03-28-2010, 11:13 AM   #8

طربـــخ طربــخ
 
الصورة الرمزية طربـــخ طربــخ

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افتراضي

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قديم 03-28-2010, 11:38 AM   #9

RoSe NaJrAn
 
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افتراضي



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